A voltage divider is a way to decrease a voltage to a proportion of the circuit voltage using two resistors or a potentiometer. The proportion of two resistors will create that proportion output of voltage between the resistors (or the wiper in the case of a potentiometer).
The formula for a voltage divider is:
Vout = ( R1/(R1 + R2) ) * Vin
Example: Resistors are the same on both sides.
Vout = ( 100 ohm / (100 ohm + 100 ohm)) * 5v
Vout = (100/200)*5v
Vout = 1/2 * 5V
Vout = 2.5V as expected.
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